Research and Writing

My research focuses on educational assessment, and more specifically assessment methods that can meaningfully inform instruction and that can allow for appropriate measurement of knowledge and skills among students with disabilities. Below you can find the titles of research articles I’ve published, books I’ve written, and grants I have received for my work. Please note that my last name changed from “Bolt” to “Witmer” in 2011.

Articles (student authors are italicized)

Witmer, S., Cook, E., Schmitt, H., & Clinton, M. (in press). The read-aloud accommodation during instruction: Exploring effects on studentself-perceptions and academic growth. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal.

Witmer, S., Nasamran, A., Parikh, P., Schmitt, H., Clinton, M. (2015). Using parents and teachers to monitor progress among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD):A review of intervention research.  Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. Published online March 24, 2014  doi:10.1177/1088357614525659

Rowe, S., Witmer, S., Cook, E., DaCruz, K. (2014). Teachers’attitudes about using curriculum based measurement of reading (CBM-R) for universal screening and progress monitoring. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30, 305-337. doi:10.1080/15377903.2014.938793

Witmer, S., Duke, N., Billman, A., & Betts, J. (2014). Using assessment to improve early elementary students’ knowledge and skills for comprehending informational text. Journal of Applied School Psychology. Published online August 4, 2014 doi: 10.1080/15377903.2014.924454

vonderEmbse, N., Witmer, S. (2014). High-stakes accountability: Student anxiety and     large-scale testing. Journal of Applied School Psychology. Published online April 24, 2014 doi: 10.1080/15377903.2014.888529

Witmer, S., & Ferreri, S. (2014). Alignment of instruction, expectations, and accountability testing for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 29, 131-144. doi:10.1177/1088357614522294

Bolt, S., Decker, D., Lloyd, M., & Morlock, L. (2011). Examining students’ experiences with  accommodation access across high school and college. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34 (2), 165-175

Sportsman, E., Certo, J., Bolt, S., & Miller, J. (2011). Literature circles: Social and leadership development among at-risk students. School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice, 5, 13-26.

Betts, J., Bolt, S., Decker, D., Marston, D., & Muyskens, P. (2009). Examining the role of time and language type in the development of reading proficiency for English Language Learners. Journal of School Psychology, 47, 143-166.

Bolt, S. E., & Ysseldyke, J. E (2008). Accommodating students with disabilities in large-scale testing: A comparison of differential item functioning (DIF) identified across disability types. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26, 121-138. Reprinted in G. Boyle, D. Saklofske, & G. Matthews (Eds.). Psychological Assessment: Applied Psychological Assessment (Vol. 4). London: Sage.

Decker, D., & Bolt, S. E. (2008). Challenges and opportunities for promoting student achievement through large-scale assessment results: Research, reflections, and future directions. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 34 (1), 43-51.

Bolt, S. E., & Thurlow, M. L. (2007). Item-level effects of the read-aloud accommodation for students with reading disabilities. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33, 15-28.

Adams, G., Smith, T., Bolt, S., & Nolten, P., (2007). School psychologists’ knowledge and practices associated with serving students with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The California School Psychologist, 12, 93-104.

Bolt, S. E., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2006). Comparing DIF across math and   reading/language arts tests for students receiving a read-aloud accommodation.  Applied Measurement in Education, 19, 329-355.

Bolt, S. E., & Quenemoen, R. L. (2006). The growing demand for expertise in assessment and diverse learners to inform the implementation of large-scale accountability systems. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31, 49-62.

Bolt, S. E. (2005). Reflections on practice within the Heartland Problem-Solving Model: The perceived value of direct assessment of student needs. The California School   Psychologist, 10, 65-79.

Bolt, S. E., & Thurlow, M. L. (2004). Five of the most commonly allowed accommodations in state policy: Synthesis of research. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 141-152.

Bielinski, J., Ysseldyke, J., Bolt, S., Friedebach, J., & Friedebach, M. (2001). Prevalence of accommodations for students with disabilities participating in a statewide testing program. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 26 (2), 21-28.


Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J., & Witmer, S. (under contract). Assessment in special and inclusive education (13th edition). New York: Cengage.

Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J., & Bolt, S. (2013). Assessment in special and inclusive education (12th edition). New York: Cengage.

Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J., & Bolt, S. (2010). Assessment in special and inclusive education (11th edition). New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Bolt, S. E., & Roach, A. (2009). Inclusive assessment and accountability: A guide to accommodations for students with diverse needs. New York: Guilford.

Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J., with Bolt, S. (2007). Assessment in special and inclusive education (10th edition). New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Research Grants

Witmer, S., & Reckase, M. (2014). Behavioral and task-related testing accommodations ($50,000). Michigan State Unviersity Discretionary Funding Initiative (funded).

Witmer, S. (2012). An initial exploration of links between instructional and testing accommodations ($6860). Michigan State University College of EducationIn-house Grant Program (funded).

Stebbe Rowe, S., & Witmer, S. (2012). Teacher acceptability of oral reading fluency($5000). Society for the Study of School Psychology Dissertation AwardCompetition (funded).

Bolt, S., & Ferreri, S. (2008). Educating Michigan’s Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): An Initial Exploration of Programming and Student Outcomes: The ASD-Michigan Project ($310,000). Combination of funds from Kellogg Foundation, the Weisers, and the Skillman Foundation. August 1, 2008 (funded).

Bolt, S. E. (2005). Examining the value-added to reading intervention outcomes from a  systematic problem analysis. Intramural Research and Grant Program ($50,000). Michigan State University (funded)

Bolt, S., & Picklo, D. (2005). Examining high school and college student experiences with  accommodations among students with learning disabilities ($10,000). Society for   the Study of School Psychology Early Career Scholar Competition, July 12, 2005             (funded).

Bolt, S. (2005). Examining the effects of item characteristics on the test performance of  accommodated students with disabilities ($2,760). Michigan State University College of Education In-house Grant Program (funded).

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